Noel McCarthy

About me
I trained and worked in medicine, epidemiology and public health in Ireland, Sweden, Africa, and the UK and have worked in clinical medicine, tropical medicine, and public health. My research training includes a Masers in Public health at the Karolinska Institute, MSc in Statistics at the London School of Hygiene, and DPhil at the University of Oxford supervised by Prof. Martin Maiden focusing on the integration of pathogen genetic sequences in public health epidemiology (e.g. papers 21, 31, 33, 56) and have worked clinically as a consultant in communicable disease control and consultant epidemiologist with Public Health England. My main post is as at the University of Warwick ( alongside which I continue at Oxford as an NIHR investigator in the University Health Protection Research Unit on Gastrointestinal Infections ( leading the epidemiological methods theme.

Research interests
Most of my research has been in public health epidemiology. Within this my work in the Zoology Department has mainly focussed on integrating bacterial population genetics in public health epidemiology of human disease and overlaps with my main employment as a public health doctor with Public Health England. My wider research interest focuses on developing and applying quantitative and novel research methods to practical public health problems. In this regard “focuses” may be a misnomer as the work is fairly diverse.




1: Lang S, Ford KJ, John T, Pollard AJ, McCarthy ND. Immunisation errors reported to a vaccine advice service: intelligence to improve practice. Qual Prim Care. 2014;22(3):139-46. PubMed PMID: 24865341.
2: Walker TM, Lalor MK, Broda A, Saldana Ortega L, Morgan M, Parker L, Churchill  S, Bennett K, Golubchik T, Giess AP, Del Ojo Elias C, Jeffery KJ, Bowler IC, Laurenson IF, Barrett A, Drobniewski F, McCarthy ND, Anderson LF, Abubakar I, Thomas HL, Monk P, Smith EG, Walker AS, Crook DW, Peto TE, Conlon CP. Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in Oxfordshire, UK, 2007-12, with whole pathogen genome sequences: an observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Apr;2(4):285-92. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70027-X. Epub 2014 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 24717625.
3: Briggs AD, Boxall NS, VAN Santen D, Chalmers RM, McCarthy ND. Approaches to the detection of very small, common, and easily missed outbreaks that together contribute substantially to human Cryptosporidium infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Apr 2:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24690264.
4: McCann LJ, Ford KJ, Pollard AJ, Kulkarni R, Amirthalingam G, Smith A, McCarthy ND. Self-reported adverse events in adolescents aged 13-18 years after mass vaccination with pertussis-containing vaccine, following a school outbreak. Public Health. 2013 Dec;127(12):1133-6. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 24275027.
5: Maiden MC, Jansen van Rensburg MJ, Bray JE, Earle SG, Ford SA, Jolley KA, McCarthy ND. MLST revisited: the gene-by-gene approach to bacterial genomics. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013 Oct;11(10):728-36. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3093. Epub 2013 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 23979428; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3980634.
6: Abid M, Wimalarathna H, Mills J, Saldana L, Pang W, Richardson JF, Maiden MC, McCarthy ND. Duck liver-associated outbreak of Campylobacteriosis among humans, United Kingdom, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;19(8):1310-3. doi: 10.3201/eid1908.121535. PubMed PMID: 23876233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3739499.
7: Wimalarathna HM, Richardson JF, Lawson AJ, Elson R, Meldrum R, Little CL, Maiden MC, McCarthy ND, Sheppard SK. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages. BMC Microbiol. 2013 Jul 15;13:160. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-160. PubMed PMID: 23855904; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3717071.
8: Cody AJ, McCarthy ND, Jansen van Rensburg M, Isinkaye T, Bentley SD, Parkhill J, Dingle KE, Bowler IC, Jolley KA, Maiden MC. Real-time genomic epidemiological evaluation of human Campylobacter isolates by use of whole-genome multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Aug;51(8):2526-34. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00066-13. Epub 2013 May 22. PubMed PMID: 23698529; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3719633.
9: Taori SK, Jameson LJ, Campbell A, Drew PJ, McCarthy ND, Hart J, Osborne JC, Sudhanva M, Brooks TJ. UK hantavirus, renal failure, and pet rats. Lancet. 2013 Mar 23;381(9871):1070. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60599-1. Epub 2013 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 23668557.
10: Griekspoor P, Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Hansbro PM, Ashhurst-Smith C, Olsen B, Hasselquist D, Maiden MC, Waldenström J. Marked host specificity and lack of  phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds. Mol Ecol. 2013 Mar;22(5):1463-72. doi: 10.1111/mec.12144. Epub 2013 Jan 29. PubMed PMID: 23356487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3596980.
11: Sheppard SK, Didelot X, Jolley KA, Darling AE, Pascoe B, Meric G, Kelly DJ, Cody A, Colles FM, Strachan NJ, Ogden ID, Forbes K, French NP, Carter P, Miller WG, McCarthy ND, Owen R, Litrup E, Egholm M, Affourtit JP, Bentley SD, Parkhill J, Maiden MC, Falush D. Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli. Mol Ecol. 2013 Feb;22(4):1051-64. doi: 10.1111/mec.12162. Epub 2012 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 23279096; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3749442.
12: Gillespie IA, Mook P, Adak GK, O’Brien SJ, McCarthy ND. The “case-chaos study” as an adjunct or alternative to conventional case-control study methodology. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Sep 15;176(6):497-505. Epub 2012 Aug 8. PubMed  PMID: 22875753.
13: Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Layton R, Maiden MC. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e22825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022825. Epub 2011 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 22174732; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3236184.
14: Colles FM, Ali JS, Sheppard SK, McCarthy ND, Maiden MC. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Environ Microbiol Rep. 2011 Oct;3(5):574-580. PubMed PMID: 22164198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3229703.
15: Ibarz-Pavón AB, Maclennan J, Andrews NJ, Gray SJ, Urwin R, Clarke SC, Walker  AM, Evans MR, Kroll JS, Neal KR, Ala’aldeen D, Crook DW, Cann K, Harrison S, Cunningham R, Baxter D, Kaczmarski E, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Cameron JC, Stuart JM, Maiden MC. Changes in serogroup and genotype prevalence among carried meningococci in the United Kingdom during vaccine implementation. J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 1;204(7):1046-53. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir466. PubMed PMID: 21881120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3164428.
16: Arinaminpathy N, Raphaely N, Saldana L, Hodgekiss C, Dandridge J, Knox K, McCarthy ND. Transmission and control in an institutional pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Jun;140(6):1102-10. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811001518. Epub 2011 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 21859502.
17: Sheppard SK, Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Strachan NJ, Ogden ID, Forbes KJ, Dallas JF, Maiden MC. Niche segregation and genetic structure of Campylobacter jejuni populations from wild and agricultural host species. Mol Ecol. 2011 Aug;20(16):3484-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05179.x. Epub 2011 Jul 18. PubMed PMID: 21762392; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3985062.
18: Sheppard SK, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Maiden MC. Introgression in the genus Campylobacter: generation and spread of mosaic alleles. Microbiology. 2011 Apr;157(Pt 4):1066-74. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.045153-0. Epub 2011 Jan 6. PubMed PMID: 21212120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3139442.
19: Sheppard SK, Dallas JF, Wilson DJ, Strachan NJ, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Colles FM, Rotariu O, Ogden ID, Forbes KJ, Maiden MC. Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 15;5(12):e15708. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015708. PubMed PMID: 21179537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3002284.
20: Hastings R, Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Maiden MC, Sheppard SK. Campylobacter genotypes from poultry transportation crates indicate a source of contamination
and transmission. J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Jan;110(1):266-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04883.x. Epub 2010 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 21059158; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4006115.
21: Sheppard SK, Colles F, Richardson J, Cody AJ, Elson R, Lawson A, Brick G, Meldrum R, Little CL, Owen RJ, Maiden MC, McCarthy ND. Host association of Campylobacter genotypes transcends geographic variation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Aug;76(15):5269-77. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00124-10. Epub 2010 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 20525862; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2916502.
22: Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Sheppard SK, Layton R, Maiden MC. Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010 Feb 28;137(2-3):259-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.12.021. Epub 2010 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 20071049; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3980632.
23: Nielsen LN, Sheppard SK, McCarthy ND, Maiden MC, Ingmer H, Krogfelt KA. MLST  clustering of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from patients with gastroenteritis, reactive arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Appl Microbiol. 2010 Feb;108(2):591-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04444.x. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 19702866; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3985121.
24: Sheppard SK, Dallas JF, Strachan NJ, MacRae M, McCarthy ND, Wilson DJ, Gormley FJ, Falush D, Ogden ID, Maiden MC, Forbes KJ. Campylobacter genotyping to determine the source of human infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 15;48(8):1072-8. doi: 10.1086/597402. PubMed PMID: 19275496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988352.
25: Sheppard SK, Dallas JF, MacRae M, McCarthy ND, Sproston EL, Gormley FJ, Strachan NJ, Ogden ID, Maiden MC, Forbes KJ. Campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in Scotland 2005/6. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009 Aug 31;134(1-2):96-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.02.010. Epub 2009 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 19269051; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3985063.
26: Bille E, Ure R, Gray SJ, Kaczmarski EB, McCarthy ND, Nassif X, Maiden MC, Tinsley CR. Association of a bacteriophage with meningococcal disease in young adults. PLoS One. 2008;3(12):e3885. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003885. Epub 2008 Dec 9. PubMed PMID: 19065260; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2587699.
27: Dingle KE, McCarthy ND, Cody AJ, Peto TE, Maiden MC. Extended sequence typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;14(10):1620-2. doi: 10.3201/eid1410.071109. PubMed PMID: 18826829; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2609887.
28: Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Howe JC, Devereux CL, Gosler AG, Maiden MC. Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European starling). Environ Microbiol. 2009 Jan;11(1):258-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01773.x. Epub 2008 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 18826435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2702492.
29: Callaghan MJ, Buckee C, McCarthy ND, Ibarz Pavón AB, Jolley KA, Faust S, Gray SJ, Kaczmarski EB, Levin M, Kroll JS, Maiden MC, Pollard AJ. Opa protein repertoires of disease-causing and carried meningococci. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Sep;46(9):3033-41. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00005-08. Epub 2008 May 28. PubMed PMID: 18508936; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2546767.
30: Colles FM, Jones TA, McCarthy ND, Sheppard SK, Cody AJ, Dingle KE, Dawkins MS, Maiden MC. Campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment. Environ Microbiol. 2008 Aug;10(8):2042-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01623.x. Epub 2008 Apr 10. PubMed PMID: 18412548; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2702501.
31: Sheppard SK, McCarthy ND, Falush D, Maiden MC. Convergence of Campylobacter species: implications for bacterial evolution. Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):237-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1155532. PubMed PMID: 18403712.
32: Green DM, Del Rio Vilas VJ, Birch CP, Johnson J, Kiss IZ, McCarthy ND, Kao RR. Demographic risk factors for classical and atypical scrapie in Great Britain. J Gen Virol. 2007 Dec;88(Pt 12):3486-92. PubMed PMID: 18024920; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2884981.
33: McCarthy ND, Colles FM, Dingle KE, Bagnall MC, Manning G, Maiden MC, Falush D. Host-associated genetic import in Campylobacter jejuni. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;13(2):267-72. PubMed PMID: 17479890; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2063414.
34: Neira-Munoz E, Okoro C, McCarthy ND. Outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis associated with low oocyst concentrations. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Oct;135(7):1159-64. Epub 2007 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 17445321; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2870687.
35: Vu DM, Kelly D, Heath PT, McCarthy ND, Pollard AJ, Granoff DM. Effectiveness analyses may underestimate protection of infants after group C meningococcal immunization. J Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 15;194(2):231-7. Epub 2006 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 16779730.
36: Bennett JS, Griffiths DT, McCarthy ND, Sleeman KL, Jolley KA, Crook DW, Maiden MC. Genetic diversity and carriage dynamics of Neisseria lactamica in infants. Infect Immun. 2005 Apr;73(4):2424-32. PubMed PMID: 15784588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1087434.
37: Claus H, Maiden MC, Wilson DJ, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Urwin R, Hessler F, Frosch M, Vogel U. Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults. J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;191(8):1263-71. Epub 2005 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 15776372.
38: Yazdankhah SP, Kriz P, Tzanakaki G, Kremastinou J, Kalmusova J, Musilek M, Alvestad T, Jolley KA, Wilson DJ, McCarthy ND, Caugant DA, Maiden MC. Distribution of serogroups and genotypes among disease-associated and carried isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from the Czech Republic, Greece, and Norway. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Nov;42(11):5146-53. PubMed PMID: 15528708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC525265.
39: McConkey SJ, McCarthy ND, Keane CT. Primary peritonitis due to nonenteric salmonellae. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jul;29(1):211-2. PubMed PMID: 10433594.

40: Smith AJ, McCarthy N, Saldana L, Ihekweazu C, McPhedran K, Adak GK, Iturriza-Gómara M, Bickler G, O’Moore É. A large foodborne outbreak of norovirus  in diners at a restaurant in England between January and February 2009. Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Sep;140(9):1695-701. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811002305. Epub 2011 Dec 1. PubMed PMID: 22129511; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3405767.
41: Scaber J, Saeed S, Ihekweazu C, Efstratiou A, McCarthy N, O’Moore E. Group A streptococcal infections during the seasonal influenza outbreak 2010/11 in South East England. Euro Surveill. 2011 Feb 3;16(5). pii: 19780. PubMed PMID: 21315058.
42: Baker K, Morris J, McCarthy N, Saldana L, Lowther J, Collinson A, Young M. An outbreak of norovirus infection linked to oyster consumption at a UK restaurant, February 2010. J Public Health (Oxf). 2011 Jun;33(2):205-11. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdq089. Epub 2010 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 20980346.
43: Baugh V, McCarthy N. Outbreak of Bordetella pertussis among oncology nurse specialists. Occup Med (Lond). 2010 Aug;60(5):401-5. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqq051. Epub 2010 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 20407043.
44: Prendergast A, Mphatswe W, Tudor-Williams G, Rakgotho M, Pillay V, Thobakgale C, McCarthy N, Morris L, Walker BD, Goulder P. Early virological suppression with
three-class antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected African infants. AIDS. 2008 Jul 11;22(11):1333-43. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830437df. PubMed PMID: 18580613.
45: Mphatswe W, Blanckenberg N, Tudor-Williams G, Prendergast A, Thobakgale C, Mkhwanazi N, McCarthy N, Walker BD, Kiepiela P, Goulder P. High frequency of rapid immunological progression in African infants infected in the era of perinatal HIV prophylaxis. AIDS. 2007 Jun 19;21(10):1253-61. PubMed PMID: 17545701.
46: Kiepiela P, Ngumbela K, Thobakgale C, Ramduth D, Honeyborne I, Moodley E, Reddy S, de Pierres C, Mncube Z, Mkhwanazi N, Bishop K, van der Stok M, Nair K, Khan N, Crawford H, Payne R, Leslie A, Prado J, Prendergast A, Frater J, McCarthy N, Brander C, Learn GH, Nickle D, Rousseau C, Coovadia H, Mullins JI, Heckerman D, Walker BD, Goulder P. CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Nat Med. 2007 Jan;13(1):46-53. Epub 2006 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 17173051.
47: Frater AJ, Edwards CT, McCarthy N, Fox J, Brown H, Milicic A, Mackie N, Pillay T, Drijfhout JW, Dustan S, Clarke JR, Holmes EC, Zhang HT, Pfafferott K, Goulder PJ, McClure MO, Weber J, Phillips RE, Fidler S. Passive sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants and adaptation in new hosts. J Virol. 2006 Jul;80(14):7226-34. PubMed PMID: 16809328; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1489048.
48: Birtles A, McCarthy N, Sheppard CL, Rutter H, Guiver M, Haworth E, George RC. Multilocus sequence typing directly on DNA from clinical samples and a cultured isolate to investigate linked fatal pneumococcal disease in residents of a shelter for homeless men. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr;43(4):2004-8. PubMed PMID: 15815045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1081336.
49: Willis CM, Church SM, Guest CM, Cook WA, McCarthy N, Bransbury AJ, Church MR, Church JC. Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study. BMJ. 2004 Sep 25;329(7468):712. PubMed PMID: 15388612; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC518893.
50: Woods CW, Karpati AM, Grein T, McCarthy N, Gaturuku P, Muchiri E, Dunster L, Henderson A, Khan AS, Swanepoel R, Bonmarin I, Martin L, Mann P, Smoak BL, Ryan M, Ksiazek TG, Arthur RR, Ndikuyeze A, Agata NN, Peters CJ; World Health Organization Hemorrhagic Fever Task Force. An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997-98. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Feb;8(2):138-44. PubMed PMID: 11897064; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2732454.
51: McCarthy N, Giesecke J. Incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 15;153(6):610-4. PubMed PMID: 11257070.
52: Pebody RG, Furtado C, Rojas A, McCarthy N, Nylen G, Ruutu P, Leino T, Chalmers R, de Jong B, Donnelly M, Fisher I, Gilham C, Graverson L, Cheasty T, Willshaw G, Navarro M, Salmon R, Leinikki P, Wall P, Bartlett C. An international outbreak of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection amongst tourists; a challenge for the European infectious disease surveillance network. Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Oct;123(2):217-23. PubMed PMID: 10579440; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2810752.
53: McCarthy N, Giesecke J. Case-case comparisons to study causation of common infectious diseases. Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):764-8. Review. PubMed PMID:  10480708.
54: McCarthy N, Andersson Y, Jormanainen V, Gustavsson O, Giesecke J. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Feb;122(1):15-7. PubMed PMID: 10098780; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2809582.
55: Spencer SE, McCarthy N, Hannigan B, Gill D, Taylor MR, Murphy D, Walshe JJ. Antiepithelial cell antibodies do not impair paediatric renal allograft survival but appear to be associated with acute viral infections. Transpl Immunol. 1996 Mar;4(1):19-22. PubMed PMID: 8762004.
56: McCarthy ND, Gillespie IA, Lawson AJ, Richardson J, Neal KR, Hawtin PR, Maiden MC, O’Brien SJ. Molecular epidemiology of human Campylobacter jejuni shows association between seasonal and international patterns of disease. Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Dec;140(12):2247-55. doi: 10.1017/S0950268812000192. Epub 2012 Feb 28.PMID: 22370165